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History Of Israel Part 2...
                                                                                  
• The period of Roman rule began with
the conquest of Judea by General Pompey in 64 BC. From 37 BC until about 4 BC, King Herod the Great ruled over the area. His reign was followed by his son Herod Archelaus until removed from power by Emporer Augustus in 6 AD. Augustus appointed another son of Herod the Great, Herod Antipas, as ruler from 6 AD to 39 AD. It was Herod Antipas who held office during the time of Yeshua (Jesus) of Nazareth's ministry.

• It is estimated that Yeshua (Jesus) was born around 5 BC and that his crucifixion took place about 28 AD, although there is much debate among scholars over the actual dates. Some place his birth as far back as 8 BC and some as recently as 1 BC. In the past few years some historians and researchers have also proposed that Yeshua was about age 40 at his crucifixion, as opposed to the long taught belief that he was 33 when this happened.

• During the Jewish Revolt of 66 AD, the Jews broke Roman rule and declared the kingdom of Israel. The revolt was soon overthrown by Roman forces, and Jerusalem along with the Second Temple were destroyed in
70 AD. During the time of the revolt, Christians, who were primarily a sub-sect of Judaism, followed Yeshua's (Jesus') New Testament warning and fled Jerusalem. The Jewish historian Josephus estimated that over one million Jews were killed during the Roman reconquest.

In 131 AD, Roman Emperor Hadrian declared the name of the region of Judea would be changed to Palestine. Another Jewish revolt took place from 132 to 136 AD. Of note, during this revolt Christians would not participate and it was at this point that Jews began to view Christianity as a separate religion from Judaism.

• Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire during the fourth century AD, and Constantine I moved the Roman capital to Byzantium (renamed Constantinople). During the period of 313 AD to 636 AD, Judea was under Byzantine rule. In 614 AD, the Persians captured Jerusalem, but were defeated 3 years later by Byzantine Emperor Heraclius.

• Arab Muslims conquered Jerusalem in 631 AD and ruled all of Judea from 636 AD to 1099 AD. Then European Christian Crusaders invaded Judea and ruled parts of it until the middle 13th century AD, although the Arab Sultan Saladin did conquer Jerusalem and some surrounding areas in 1187. Mongol invaders from the north and Egyptian Mamluks from the south battled back and forth over the area of Israel from 1260 to 1291 AD, at which time the area came under Mamluk rule until 1516.

• For four hundred years from 1517 to 1917 AD, the area of what is now the nation of Israel was ruled by the Ottoman Empire. By the 1800's, the area was primarily populated by a mixture of Jews, Arab Christians, Muslims, Druze, Bedouins, Greeks and others. Jews were increasingly being persecuted in Russia and Eastern Europe in the late 1800's and many began to migrate to Jerusalem and nearby cities. The outcry for the establishment of a Jewish homeland began to build momentum, and the Fist Zionist Congress was held in 1897 to begin to pressure European governments to help. Jewish migration to Palestine continued, and the first modern Jewish city, Tel Aviv, was established in 1909. 

• As World War I unfolded, many Jews assisted Great Britain and her allies against Germany. In 1917, Lord Balfour of Great Britain issued the Balfour Declaration, which declared that Britain "view[ed] with favor the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people". Later that year, General Allenby led British forces, assisted by Jewish fighters, in a liberation of Jerusalem and Palestine from the Ottoman Turks.

• Between the end of WWI in 1918 and the beginning of WWII in 1939, the relationship between Great Britain and the world Jewish community was tenuous at best. After the conquest of much Middle Eastern territory in 1917, the British created the state of Mesopotamia, which was later renamed Iraq. They also created the state of Palestine that consisted of what is now Israel including the West Bank and Gaza, and also Jordan. Though the British technically ruled the area, many Jewish organizations assisted in providing a local governmental framework to provide for the day-to-day needs of residents.

• Britain attempted to place a number of restrictions on Jewish immigration to Palestine in an attempt to placate the Arab/Muslim world. Anti-Semitism was spreading across Europe in the 1920's and 30's and Britain was not immune. Between 1936 and 1939 Arab terrorists launched a revolt in Palestine in an attempt to drive the Jews out. Britain did little to protect Jewish communities, leaving the Jews to form their own home defenses forces.

• What is arguably the darkest moment in world history occurred between 1939 and 1945 as Jewish persecution reached a fever pitch during WWII with the slaughter of over six million European Jews by Hitler's Germany and her allies. Over half of all Jews in Europe were wiped out. Another 200,000 plus Jews died serving in the Allied armies of the United States and the Soviet Union. As the war came to a close, most European Jews found themselves homeless and displaced resulting in a large migration to the fledgling Jewish cities of British controlled Israel. The British government began to take measures to stop this migration and to also impede the organizations helping them. British authorities arrested thousands of Jews and held them indefinitely without trial. Many thousands more, primarily Holocaust survivors and their families, who fled Europe for Israel were detained in internment camps in Cypress. The British finally began to allow limited numbers to leave for Israel each month.

• Jews in Palestine increasingly began to rebel against British authority between 1943 and 1947, coming to a head with the July 22, 1946 bombing of British military headquarters at the King David hotel in Jerusalem carried out by the Jewish group Irgun. This event caused a split between moderate and hardline Jewish factions. Britain's hard line against Jewish immigration began to backfire, as the U.S. Congress threatened to cut off funding for the Anglo-American loan. These funds were to assist the British government in regaining her financial footing following WW II. In response, the British decided to hand off the issue of Palestine to the United Nations.
(History continued on page 3)

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